Dentin Dysplasia (DD) is one of the hereditary dentin defects genetic disorders that affects the normal development of both primary and permanent teeth. This rare disorder is mainly characterized by an abnormal dentin structure and root development.
This hereditary disorder affects the normal development of the dentin, which consists of the hard tissue that is located beneath the enamel and gives protection to the pulp of the teeth.
In this hereditary disorder, the morphology and color of the teeth may look normal but it can be observed through radiographic that the teeth have shorter roots than normal, premature exfoliation and obliteration of the pulp chambers and canals.
This type of teeth development disorder that affects the dentin and root of the teeth can be also known as Opalescent Dentin, Pulpless Teeth, Radicular Dentin Dysplasia, Rootless Teeth, Thistle Tube Teeth, Coronal Dentin Dysplasia or Dentin Dysplasia, radicular.
There are two types of Dentin Dysplasia:
- Dentin Dysplasia Type I: this type of dentin dysplasia is characterized by the premature loss of teeth, slightly amber colored crowns, sharp conical short roots or rootless teeth. Dentin Dysplasia type I is considered as the radicular type because the roots of teeth are shorter than normal. When Dentin Dysplasia type I occurs, the teeth present a greater resistance to caries than normal teeth do.This condition affects approximately one patient in every 100,000.
- Dentin Dysplasia Type II: this case occurs when the roots and morphology of the teeth develop without presenting any abnormality but an abnormal color primary in dentition and color with pulp chamber shape anomalies and multiple intrapulpal calcifications is produced. Dentin Dysplasia type II is considered as the coronal type.
Dentin Dysplasia is a genetically inherited disorder caused by mutations in the DSPP gene, which codes the dentin. This inherited disorder is an autosomal dominant pattern, which means that it occurs when only one copy of the mutation is inherited on a non-sex chromosome.
The most frequent signs of this disorder are:
- Chipped teeth
- Misaligned teeth
- Obliterated tooth root pulp chambers
- Shorter tooth root than normal
- Underdeveloped jaw
- Crooked teeth
Due to the short roots of the tooth, any trauma that it suffers can lead to its loss. That’s why the orthodontic procedures should be applied to the minimum and a good oral hygiene that includes brushing your teeth and flossing at least twice a day should be a priority.
Dental implants could be used to replace the teeth that were lost too early. A surgical intervention could be the most indicated option in severe cases and a rehabilitation that allows the dentist to fix the lost tooth back in its place can be helpful in other cases.
The Dentin Dysplasia affects the appearance and functional performance of the teeth but with a good care and a proper treatment, this issue can be improved. To avoid the early loss of teeth due to dentin dysplasia it is essential to have an early diagnosis and to receive a proper treatment as soon as the problem is detected.